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VDS and VPS
VDS (Virtual Dedicated Server) or VPS (Virtual Private Server) is a hosting service where the user is provided with a virtual server with maximum privileges. VDS or VPS emulates the operation of a real physical server - there is root access, it is possible to install your own operating systems and software. A single physical server usually hosts several independent virtual servers.
Many people think that the terms denote virtual servers with different types of virtualization: VPS stands for virtualization at the operating system level, VDS stands for hardware virtualization. In fact, both terms appeared and developed in parallel, and mean the same thing: a virtual dedicated server running on the basis of a physical one.
We use the term VDS (Virtual Dedicated Server) because we believe that it more clearly reflects the essence of the service provided.
According to the principle of operation and the peculiarities of functioning, a virtual dedicated server is not much different from a physical server. It has no restrictions on the number of hosted sites, databases, domain zones, ssh-ftp-email users, and its owner-administrator has the right to work with files, install applications and perform other operations, as on a real full-fledged server. Each virtual server has its own IP address, which is not shared with anyone else. Additional IP addresses can be ordered if required.
A virtual server works independently of others located on the same host machine. This means that the failure of one server does not affect the functioning of neighboring servers.
Unlike ordinary virtual (shared) hosting, DDoS protection technologies are available on a virtual server, and data safety is guaranteed by the ability to create a backup copy.
Comparison of VDS / VPS with shared hosting
Pros of using VDS / VPS compared to shared hosting:
- Full control: the owner of a virtual dedicated server gets root (for Unix) or Administrator (for Windows) access rights, and can fine-tune the server to fit the needs of a particular project up to installing the necessary software and changing the operating system.
- Minimum restrictions: the number of created sites, databases, domain zones, ssh-ftp-email-users is limited only by server resources.
- Independence: virtual servers “neighbors” on the host machine work in isolation and do not take resources away from each other, and also use separate IP addresses, while on ordinary virtual hosting, several sites often use the same IP address.
Cons of using VDS / VPS compared to shared hosting:
- Price: The cost of renting a virtual dedicated server is usually higher than the cost of shared hosting.
- The need for administration: a virtual server needs to be administered as a physical one, so the user requires certain knowledge and skills in this area. The presence of the control panel makes it easier to perform common tasks.
Comparison of VDS / VPS with a physical dedicated server
Pros of using VDS / VPS compared to a dedicated server:
- Low cost: renting a virtual dedicated server costs the user much cheaper than renting a physical server comparable in capacity. At the same time, the performance of VDS / VPS may even be higher.
- Simple scalability: It is very easy for a virtual server to add capacity in the form of additional RAM, processor cores, or hard disk space.
Cons of using a VDS / VPS server versus a dedicated server:
- Shared disk system and communication channel: all virtual servers running on one host machine, subject to the sharing of basic resources, use one disk system for all and a common high-speed communication channel. This means that some users may abuse resources and interfere with other clients. Usually an automated system is used that finds such users. Measures from warning to shutting down VDS are applied to violators.
Features of virtualization technologies OpenVZ and KVM
There are two types of server virtualization to choose from: OpenVZ (operating system level) and KVM (hardware).
OpenVZ technology is based on the Linux kernel and allows creating and running isolated copies of the operating system on one physical server - the so-called "virtual private servers" (VPS) or "virtual environments" (VE).
This technology is characterized by high performance, ease of use and easy server management. The user can also increase the capacity of such a virtual server at any time. At the same time, the choice of the operating system is possible only from a number of those proposed (Debian, CentOS, Ubuntu), since the virtual servers of a particular host machine use a common Linux kernel.
KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) is a hardware virtualization technology that allows you to create a complete virtual analogue of a real physical server on a host machine. Each such server is allocated its own area in RAM and hard disk space, its own network card, which increases the overall reliability of the server.
In fact, KVM technology allows you to create a virtual server completely isolated from its "neighbors" with its own OS kernel, which the user can configure and modify to suit his own needs with virtually no restrictions.
You can install any operating system: Linux, FreeBSD, Windows and even your own image. At the same time, changing the server resources is impossible - if your project "grows" from the initially selected tariff, you will need to order a more efficient virtual server for it at the corresponding tariff and transfer all data to it (as is the case with a real dedicated server).
A virtual server is ideal for sites that exceed the capabilities of conventional hosting, high-load network services, as well as for software design, development and testing. Closed corporate projects with increased requirements for security and data confidentiality for the most part are also based on virtual dedicated servers - especially for small companies for which the purchase or lease of a physical server is not available.